(Obviously, this is based on the anime/movie...)
FMA World Dates
1901-1908 - War in Ishbal
1907 - Death of the Rockbells - Ed 8, Al 7
1909 - Death of Trisha Elric - Ed 10, Al 9
1910 Feb - Failed Transmutation of Trisha Elric - Ed 11, Al 10
1910 Oct 10 - Burning of the Elric house - Ed 11. Al 10
1911 - National Alchemist Exam - Ed 12, Al 11
1914 - First visit to Lior - Ed 15, Al 14
1915 - Battle with Dante - Ed 16, Al 15 (10)
1917 - Movie
Real World Dates
2 Sept 1916 - Brittain Bombs Shipyard
8 Nov 1923 - Hitler's Beer Hall Putsch (Movie)
All my research has led me to conclude that the two worlds are not chronologically synchronized.
February 1910 is when the boys failed to transmute their mother, and they burned their house in October of that same year. In both instances they were 11 and 10, respectively, so i think it's safe to assume that their birthdays are either really late in the year or really early, which is supported by the fact that Ed celebrated his 12th birthday in the middle of a snowstorm. 1910 is the only actual date (from the Alchemy world) that we get, but if we extrapolate their birth years, Ed was born in 1899 and Al in 1900 (or late 1898 and 1899, but for the purposes of extrapolation, it is better to assume a birthday in the early part of the year. It makes for nice, round calculations) and after that it's easy to calculate the years of events for which only an age is given.
When we next see them, on their way to Lior, it is stated that they are 15 and 14, making the year approximately 1914. He only has 1 birthday between that point and the end of the series, which we know to be his 16th because Elysia turns 4 that same day. (Strangely enough, Al's birthday is never celebrated.)
If Ed is 16, then the series must have ended in 1915, or late 1914, not 1916 (as the Air Raid date would have you believe).
Also, the movie takes place in 1923, from the non-alchemy world's POV. At the beginning of the movie, the date is shown as 1923 and "November 8" was mentioned as the date when the gate was opened. (November 8, 1923 was the actual date of Hitler's "Beer Hall Putsch" depicted in the movie.) Ed says that he's been there for 2 years (which would make him about 18), meaning his second trip through the gate, 2 episodes after the one that transported him to September 2 1916, put him in the year 1921.
In the alchemy world, the date is listed as 1917 for the movie, but Al's age is listed as 13. (If you remember, he reverted to his 10 year-old body at the end of the series...) Keep in mind that all we know about his birthday is that it is betweeen October and February, so if we assume a late-year birthday for Al, we can place the movie between his birthday and New Year's Day. This would also go along with the statement in the movie that 3 years have passed in the alchemy world (Early 1915-Late 1917 is approx. 3 years).
The only flub in this timeline is when they say that Al lost 4 years of his memory. If he can't remember anything from the time he lost his body to the time he got it back, that's a period of 5 years (Feb 1910 to approx. the same time 1915).
All this is my own original research, so I would appreciate if you don't post this anywhere else without my permission.
Phila-Del-Phia! (from the Greek for "Brotherly Love"... Those who know me know that's how I always sign off.)